Vinkovci is a town in eastern Croatia in the province of Slavonia. Vinkovci is a town located along the river Bosut. A settlement with a population continuity of 7000 years. Archaeological excavations in the area of Vinkovci show the permanence of Neolithic settlements.
The first communities of farmers inhabited this area sometime around 6200 BC. bringing pottery, domesticated animals and plants. The oldest culture that appeared in the area of Vinkovci was the Starčevo culture, and the most famous Sopot culture, which was named after the fortified hillfort Sopot, which is located near the city.
Orion is the oldest Indo-European calendar, found in Vinkovci – the Vučedol culture.
At the end of the 4th century BC. the Celts come to the Vinkovci area. About 8 year AD, the Romans conquered the Celts and conquered the area of Vinkovci.
Two Roman emperors, Valens and Valentinian I, were born in Vinkovci.
Arriving in the area of Vinkovci, the Romans built their settlement – Cibalae. Cibalae was probably named after the Illyrian name for the hill. Excavations have shown that Cibalae had water supply, sewerage, thermal baths, shops, temples, craft workshops and residential areas. Cibalae was last mentioned in 527, and the remains of Cibalae were destroyed by the Avars and Slavs. At the end of the 8th century, these areas were conquered by the French, and from the 11th century the area of Vinkovci was ruled by the Hungarians.
At the end of the 11th century and the beginning of the 12th century, along the western edge of the ruins of the Roman Cibalae, near the restored church of St. Elias, the settlement of Vinkovci was formed and developed. The first written mention of the town of Vinkovci dates back to 1332. In the Middle Ages, next to the settlement of St. Ilije also announced the name VINKO, WANKO, WINKOWCZE, WINKOFTZI I VINKOVCI.
In the 15th century the Turks of the Osman empire gradually conqured Slavonia. The maket – town od St. Elias came under Turkish dominance in 1536. The Ottoman Turks did not leave a big mark in Vinkovci.
At the begining of the 18th century Vinkovci became a part of the Border. Vinkovci was a significant administrative, military and border headquarters. During this period, a new urban „heart” of Vinkovci has been developed.
In the second half of the 19th century (after 1873) Vinkovci became an important railway traffic hub. At the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century, a number of civic, charitable and cultural societies and clubs were founded in Vinkovci. Vinkovci did not receive a formal confirmation of the status of the city until 1923. Before the Second World War, Vinkovci had 16,000 inhabitants.
Between the two wars, the appearance of Vinkovci changed. Construction of water supply and sewerage begins, gas lighting and electricity have been introduced. The streets of Vinkovci were paved. The development of industry, banking, trade and crafts began. On November 5, 1920, Vinkovci received the status of a city, and in 1923 the coat of arms of the city.
During the Homeland War (1991 – 1995) Vinkovci were devestated much heavier than in the First and Secund World War. Many people lost their lives. During the Homeland war the economic development of the city ceased to function.