Croatian language

Standard Croatian is the official language of the Republic of Croatia. Croatian is one of the South Slavic languages, it has been called differently throughout history, and one of the names was “Illyrian”. The Croatian language was first mentioned in 1275 in the document “Istarski razvod”.

Croatian is one of three official languages of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
It is also official in the regions of 
Burgenland (Austria),
Molise  (Italy)
Vojvodina  (Serbia).

Croatian is written in the Roman alphabet (Roman/Latin script). Croatian has three main dialects (words used for the word “what” in each dialect are  ča and kaj and što):
Čakavian – spoken along the Croatian coast, on many islands and in the Lika region
Kajkavian – spoken in northern and northwestern Croatia
Štokavian – spoken in the rest of Croatia.

More than 1300 years ago, when the Croats arrived in present-day Croatia, they did not have their own script.  A small number of educated people, wrote in the language of Western civilization – Latin. Numerous monuments and documents written in Latin have been preserved. Latin has long been the language of official communication between Croats. Even after the predominance of the Croatian language in literacy and literature in Croatia, Latin legal, diplomatic, scientific, literary and other texts were written in parallel with Croatian, especially from the 14th to the middle of the 19th century. Latin was spoken in the Croatian Parliament until In 1847. At the suggestion of Ivan Kukuljević Sakcinski, the Croatian language was declared the official language. The original alphabet used by both the Serbs and Croats was Glagolitic. It was created by the monks Cyril and Methodius in the 9th century for Old Church Slavonic, the liturgical language of the time.

Baška tablet (Bašćanska ploča)  is one of the first monuments containing an inscription in  Croatian language, dating from c. 1100 AD.
Bartol Kašić  (1575-1650) was a priest and grammarian during the Counter Reformation. He wrote the first Croatian grammar and translated the Bible into Croatian.
In 1843 Ivan KukuljevićSakcinskiwas the first man to speak  Croatian in the Parliament.
The speech promoted the struggle for national liberation, asking for Croatian to become the official language in schools and offices, with its gradual introduction in the public life.
He also pointed out the danger of replacing Croatian with other languages. In 1847 at the suggestion of Ivan Kukuljević Sakcinski, Croatian was declared the official language.
The Illyrian movement was a 19th-century pan-south Slavic political and cultural movement in Croatia that had the goal to standardize the regionally differentiated and orthographically inconsistent literary languages in Croatia, and finally merge them into a common South Slavic literary language. The leader of the Illyrian movement Ljudevit Gaj standardized the Latin alphabet in 1830–1850 and worked to bring about a standardized orthography. 

Throughout history, Croatia was a part of different kingdoms, monarchies, it was occupied and lots of words of German, Italian, Hungarian and Turkish origin are still used in everyday communication.
Words from
German – north, east of Croatia
Turkish – north of the river Sava
Italian – along the Adriatic coast
Hungarian – north, east.

Facts about Croatian language:
Croatian language has seven cases: nominative,genitive, dative,accusative, vocative, locative and instrumental.
Gender: noun in Croatian are either masculine, feminine or neuter.
Nouns, adjectives, pronouns and numbers are always declined, which means that they change depending on the case that they’re in.




 

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